Topics - PIANO
The PIANO analysis is a hydrocarbon analysis carried out by GC to determine the amount of paraffin (P), isoparaffins (I), aromatics (A), naphthalene (N), and olefins (O), (cf PIANO) that are present in the mixture. These individual hydrocarbons are extremely important as they determine octane rating (‘anti-knock-rating’) which needs to be between about 86 and 100 depending on the compression ratio of the internal combustion engine concerned. Isoctane is considered to have an octane rating of 100. The isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes and aromatics increase the octane rating whereas the paraffins reduce the rating.