Analytes - thiamine (Vitamin B1)

thiamine (Vitamin B1): CAS No. 59-43-8, C12H17N4OS.Cl, molecular weight 300.84, melting point 200°C (decomposes), vapor pressure 0.00mm Hg at 25°C, non flammable, water soluble is a white or colorless crystalline solid. Thiamine is an essential nutrient. In the body, it acts as a coenzyme in the decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids and is essential for carbohydrate metabolism. It is found in all plants and especially in pork, organ meats like liver, whole-grain and enriched cereals and bread, legumes, and nuts rice husk, eggs, milk, green leaves, roots and tubers. Practically all Vitamin B1 sold is synthetically produced by reaction of 5-(beta-hydroxyethyl-4-methylthiazole with 2-methyl-4-amino-5-bromomethylpyrimidine hydrogen bromide salt followed by neutralization and reaction with hydrochloric acid. Its sole use is in the prevention and treatment of Vitamin B1 deficiency. Thiamine deficiency may occur in association with an apparently adequate diet, since the vitamin is not stored in the body to a great extent. Thus, an increase in metabolic rate (e.g.,hyperthyroidism) or a gastrointestinal disturbance, such as chronic diarrhea, may necessitate an increased intake. The major symptoms of deficiency are related to the nervous system (dry beriberi) and to the cardiovascular system (wet beriberi). Many of the neurological signs and symptoms are characteristic of peripheral neuritis, with sensory disturbances in the extremities, including localized areas of hyperesthesia or anesthesia. Muscle strength is gradually lost and may result in write-drop or complete paralysis of a limb. It is most frequently measured in food, plasma and urine using fluorescence methods as well as by reversed phase HPLC.