Analytes - ephedrine
ephedrine (L-ephedrine): CAS No. 299-42-3, C10H15NO, molecular weight 165.24, boiling point 255°C, melting point 34°C, vapor pressure 0.00mm Hg at 25°C, water soluble is a white crystalline solid. It can be produced by microbial fermentation using benzaldehyde and methylamine (microbial conversion/reductive amination). L-ephedrine can also be obtained from the Ma Huang drug (Ephedra \"vulgaris\", E. sinica Stapf, E. equisetina Bunge) and other types of Ephedra. The powdered drug is alkalized and extracted with benzene. It is used as an adrenergic alpha-agonist, adrenergic beta-agonist, adrenergic agents; appetite depressant; bronchodilator agent; central nervous system stimulants; sympathomimetic; vasoconstrictor agents. Ephedrine may be indicated for the symptomatic treatment of bronchial asthma and reversible bronchospasm associated with other obstructive pulmonary diseases; however, agents with less beta-1-adrenergic effects and more selective beta-2-adrenergic effects are generally preferred. In the treatment of acute bronchospasm, parenteral ephedrine is usually less effective than epinephrine. Oral ephedrine may be indicated for the local treatment of nasal congestion in acute coryza, vasomotor rhinitis, acute sinusitis, and hay fever. It may be used in the treatment of sinus congestion. The central nervous simulating effects of ephedrine may result in nervousness, anxiety, apprehension, fear, tension, agitation, excitation, restlessness, weakness, irritability, talkativeness, or insomnia. Dizziness, lightheadedness, and vertigo may occur, especially with large doses. Tremor or tremulousness, and hyperactive reflexes have also been reported. CNS disturbances may be prevented or overcome by administration of a sedative or tranquilizer. Large parenteral doses of ephedrine may cause confusion, delirium, hallucinations, or euphoria. Some asthmatic patients receiving continuous oral administration of the drug have taken extremely high doses in attempts to overcome refractoriness. Paranoid psychosis and visual auditory hallucinations occurred in some of these patients. Withdrawal of the drug produced rapid recovery. When the drug is used topically as a nasal decongestant (the nasal solution is no longer commercially available in the US), rebound congestion and tachyphylaxis may occur within a few days. Repeated topical use of the previously available 3% solution occasionally caused local irritation. Preparations containing ephedrine in oil solutions should be avoided, especially in children, because lipid pneumonia may result. In addition, CNS stimulation or cardiovascular effects similar to those occurring after oral or parenteral use of the drug may occur. Adverse events, including death in persons who consumed dietary supplement products containing ephedrine and associated alkaloids (pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, and N-methyl ephedrine) have been reported and resulted in the withdrawl of the drug from ther market for most applications, including dietary supplements. Because ephedrine (as the primary precursor) has been used in the clandestine synthesis of methamphetamine and methcathinone, both potent CNS stimulants with great potential for habituation and physical and/or psychic dependence and because of the potential for serious adverse effects associated with misuse and abuse of ephedrine, legal measures have been instituted reduce the potential for misuse (diversion) and abuse of ephedrine. It is most frequently measured in blood plasma, urine and dietary supplements using reversed phase HPLC, GC/FID and GC/MS.