It is seen from figure 4 that the peak front of each solute has a constant retention irrespective of the volume of charge. The back of the peak, however, only maintains a constant retention distance up to a sample volume of 0.5 ml for the three component mixtures, and up to 1 ml for the two component mixture. Subsequent to these limiting sample volume values, the retention of the back of the peak appears to increase linearly with charge volume. It is also interesting to note that peak dispersion is the same for each solute and is independent of the nature of the solute or its capacity ratio (k'). The peak dispersion towards greater retention is characteristic of volume overload which, as will be seen below, will not be true for mass overload.

Sample volume overload distorts the normal elution profile derived from normal elution development to that of frontal analysis development. If elution development is carried out with sample of increasing volume, the distorted elution development concentration profile culminates in frontal analysis.

After, J. Chromatogr., Ref. [3]


Figure 5. The Transition from Sample Volume Overload to Frontal Analysis Development.